Study the structure of stomata and find out their frequency on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of leaves


  • Take leaf and peel off a small piece of the lower and upper epidermis (adaxial & abaxial surface) and put it in water in watch glass.
  • Take out the peel from the water and place it on a slide and add 2-3 drops of saffranine to stain it.
  • Remove the excess stain with the help of a filter paper and put a drop of glycerine on the peel.
  • Gently place a cover slip on the peel and examine under microscope (high power).
  • Count the number of stomata per focus. Repeat viewing in different fields and obtain a mean value.
  • Find the area of the field of the microscope by measuring the diameter with the calibrated slide or a transparent ruler.
  • The required area is equal to πr2 (where r is the radius of the field of view and π=3.142).
  • The number of stomata per square millimeter can then be calculated.
  • Similarly, from the other side of the leaf, the stomatal count can be made.